Full Spectrum Hemp Oil
"Comprising a wide range of relatively hydrophobic hemp constituents, including but not limited to any naturally-occurring THC, other cannabinoids, and terpenes, that has been processed without intentional removal of any compounds"
- American Herbal Products Association (AHPA)
The term "Full Spectrum" in the hemp industry currently refers to products based on a resinoid hemp extract with the general composition described above, as clarified by the American Herbal Products Association (AHPA). 
For CANNACEA, a genuine "Full Spectrum" builds on the above specification by requiring the lab-certified presence of at least the following naturally-occurring hemp phytonutrients:
- All three heat-activated primary phytocannabinoids - Cannabidiol (CBD), Cannabichromene (CBC), and delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The detection of CBD's natural homolog, Cannabidivarin (CBDV), is another CANNACEA Full Spectrum target.
- Cannabigerol (CBG), the heat-activated form of "parent phytocannabinoid" Cannabigerolic Acid (CBGA) from which all other hemp phytocannabinoids get derived.
- Multiple heat-activated secondary phytocannabinoids such as Cannabinol (CBN), which are natural derivatives of the primary phytocannabinoids.
- A wide array of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes native to hemp. Rarely do full spectrum hemp products rebalance their heavier sesquiterpenes with the potent lighter monoterpenes lost during processing. The detection of all "Super Eight" terpenes is another CANNACEA Full Spectrum target.
- Cannflavin A, B, and/or C flavonoids native to hemp.
Subtle differences in extraction methods can lead to significant variations in the completeness of a hemp product's constituency. Please visit our Production page for information on our certified organic extraction processes honed to deliver CANNACEA's Full Spectrum. Our Lab Results from ISO/IEC 17025 accredited labs confirm the genuinely complete hemp full spectrum provided in our products.
(Further clarification on such botanical "spectrum" nomenclature is provided at the end of this page.)
Relative Levels of Hemp-Derived Phytonutrients
(logarithmic % scale)
Make sure any Full Spectrum or Broad Spectrum hemp product you wish to take has been lab-validated for how rich its spectrum really is!
The Full Spectrum Difference
Superior therapeutic efficacy by using whole plant extracts over single compounds has been frequently reported in the scientific literature [2-4]. After all, over 70% of "New Chemical Entities" approved as drugs by the FDA from 1981-2010 were either a natural product, derived from a natural product, or mimicked a natural product or its pharmacophore . In the area of cancer, from the 1940s to 2010, 48.6% of FDA-approved cancer drugs were either a natural product or directly derived from natural products .
No surprise, seeing as land and marine plants produce virtually all our oxygen and are the fundamental link after the Sun for the entire planetary food chain. Our lives and vitality depend directly on Earth's plant-sustained ecosystems, so it is "only natural" for the majority of our physical medicine to be derived from plants and fungi, one way or another!
Plants transform Source into Sustenance
The importance of plants for our health has been reiterated many times by major government agencies. The USDA describes the importance of eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables for reducing the risks of certain diseases . The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements describes how botanical preparations can be used therapeutically to maintain or improve health . In 1994, the scientific research demonstrating these effects inspired US Congress to pass the seminal Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) declaring the importance of ingesting certain nutrients, supplements and plant-based foods for the prevention of various chronic diseases .
Within the evidence for the important role whole plant preparations play in optimizing human health and vitality, there is an ever-growing body of scientific research supporting a "full spectrum" approach for the effective use of phytocannabinoids (see below). While single-compound formulations simplify potency standardization, CANNACEA hemp supplements combine the synergistic efficacy of full spectrum preparations with our high-precision analytical formulation processes, ensuring proper regulation of active and co-active compound levels.
Various studies demonstrate a broader range of efficacies using cannabis preparations containing multiple phytocannabinoids and other natural non-cannabinoid compounds compared with single isolated cannabinoids on their own [9-13, 17-18]. This synergistic effect has been famously dubbed the "Entourage Effect" . While preliminarily elucidated by the research we touch upon here, there remains a lot more for science to discover about this potent synergy.
A meta-analysis of 11 observational clinical studies with 670 subjects showed the use of full spectrum CBD-rich preparations instead of purified CBD on its own resulted in more reports of improvement, reduced the average CBD intake by over three-quarters, had less than half the frequency of mild adverse side effects, and had less than one-third the frequency of severe adverse side effects. 
Another study focusing on 10 pediatric subjects also showed that compared with using isolated or purified CBD, the use of full spectrum CBD-rich preparations resulted in significant improvements and reduction in adverse side effects. 
Another human study analyzing the effects of various phytocannabinoid profiles, particularly CBD:THC ratio, together with varying phytoterpene profiles found a panel of 30 subjects were consistently experiencing specific types of subjective effects in relation to specific chemotypes . This underscores the role various full spectrum profiles play in the effects of hemp supplementation, in addition to efficacy and safety shown above.
There are also several human studies demonstrating how CBD suppresses various side effects of THC when the two are taken together, particularly when more CBD than THC is taken. [14-16]
One animal study showed CBD isolated on its own was limited by a "bell-shaped" intake response for anti-nociception and anti-inflammation in mice (where positive effects peak then decrease again with higher intakes), whereas a full spectrum CBD-rich preparation did not have such limitation and demonstrated continuously increasing effects upon increasing intakes. 
Another study took single phytocannabinoid isolates and compared them to full spectrum preparations having one phytocannabinoid at 40% - 70% and the remainder comprised of a complex mixture of other phytocannabinoids and non-cannabinoid compounds. Various in vitro assays showed significant potency and efficacy differences between the isolates and full spectrum preparations for inhibiting enzymes FAAH, MAGL, and NAAA, responsible for degrading the major endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-AG, and for inhibiting the cellular reuptake of AEA. The full spectrum profiles almost always displayed higher inhibition rates than single isolate preparations of CBD, CBG and CBC at the highest concentrations tested. 
These are a few of the science-based reasons why CANNACEA offers full spectrum hemp supplements containing a wide array of phytocannabinoids, phytoterpenes and other phytonutrients native to Hemp, to provide you with the synergy Nature's Wisdom intends!
"Full Spectrum" & "Broad Spectrum" Clarifications
AHPA has also clarified that the hemp industry's usage of the term "full spectrum" as described above is inconsistent with the term's established use in the wider botanical industry, where it normally refers to products that provide the totality of all hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds (polar and nonpolar) produced by a plant from root to tip. The unique complexities of the hemp plant and its constituents, particularly regarding the presence of detectable levels of THC in a final hemp product or not, have driven this specialized nomenclature for the hemp industry. 
Another example is the term "broad spectrum", which for the Hemp industry normally signifies the presence of various cannabinoids and terpenes but lacking detectable THC. This again is in contrast with the general botanical industry usage of "broad spectrum", which normally simply means an extract comprising a wide range of the constituents native to a plant, produced so that both relatively hydrophilic and relatively hydrophobic types of botanical constituents are captured. 
- American Herbal Products Association. March 2021. Hemp Lexicon. AHPA: Silver Spring, MD.
- Wagner, H, Ulrich-Merzenich, G (2009). Synergy research: Approaching a new generation of phytopharmaceuticals. Phytomedicine 16(2-3): 97-110.
- Rasoanaivo, P et al. (2011). Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions. Malaria Journal 10(Suppl.1): 1-12.
- Yuan, H et al. (2017). How Can Synergism of Traditional Medicines Benefit from Network Pharmacology? Molecules 22(7): 1135-1153.
- Newman, DJ, Cragg, GM (2012). Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs over the 30 Years from 1981 to 2010. Journal of Natural Products 75(3): 311- 335.
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) "My Plate" webpages:
https://www.myplate.gov/eat-healthy/vegetables (accessed 6 July 2021)
https://www.myplate.gov/eat-healthy/fruits (accessed 6 July 2021)
- National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) webpage:
https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/BotanicalBackground-Consumer/ (accessed 6 July 2021)
- Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA): S 784.2.3.
- McPartland, JM, Russo, EB (2001). Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts: Greater Than the Sum of Their Parts? Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 1(3-4): 103-132.
- Russo, E (2011). Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. British Journal of Pharmacology 163(7): 1344-1364.
- Pamplona, FA et al. (2018). Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-analysis. Frontiers in Neurology 9: 759.
- Zafar, R et al. (2021). Medical cannabis for severe treatment resistant epilepsy in children: a case-series of 10 patients. BMJ Paediatrics Open 5: e001234.
- Lewis, MA et al. (2018). Pharmacological Foundations of Cannabis Chemovars. Planta Medica 84(04): 225-233.
- Karniol, IG et al. (1974). Cannabidiol interferes with the effects of delta 9- tetrahydrocannabinol in man. European Journal of Pharmacology 28(1): 172– 177.
- Zuardi, AW et al. (1982). Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by δ9-THC in normal subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 76(3): 245–250.
- Bhattacharyya, S et al. (2010). Opposite effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on human brain function and psychopathology. Neuropsychopharmacology 35(3): 764-774.
- Gallily, R et al. (2015). Overcoming the Bell-Shaped Dose-Response of Cannabidiol by Using Cannabis Extract Enriched in Cannabidiol. Pharmacology and Pharmacy 6: 75-78.
- De Petrocellis, L et al (2011). Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. British Journal of Pharmacology 163(7): 1479-1494.